Glossary Source

Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a form of contact dermatitis that is the manifestation of an allergic response caused by contact with a substance 3

An unplanned event that results in harm to people, damage to property or loss to process. 1

The many factors that act together to cause accidents. They include: personal factors, job factors, and lack of management control factors.

Personal factors : inadequate capability, lack of knowledge/skill, improper motivation, stress.

Job factors : inadequate leadership or supervision, inadequate engineering, inadequate purchasing, inadequate maintenance, inadequate work standards/procedures, inadequate hazard controls

Lack of management control factors : inadequate program, inadequate program standards, inadequate compliance with standards, inadequate hazard controls 1

The process of systematically gathering and analyzinging formation about an accident. This is done for the purposes of identifying causes and making recommendations to prevent the accident from happening again. 1

The systematic application of recognized principles to reduce incidents, accidents, or the accident potential of a system or organization. 1

A change that occurs in the body within a relatively short time (minutes,hours, days) following exposure to a substance. 1

A single exposure to a hazardous agent. 1

A category of hazard control that uses administrative/management involvement in order to minimize employee exposure to the hazard. Some examples are: job enrichment job rotation work/rest schedules work rates periods of adjustment 1

Collection and analysis of representative samples of air ingeneral work areas in order to determine the concentrations of any contaminants that are present. 1

Surrounding. Ambient air usually means outdoor air (as opposed to indoor air). 4

A vapour or gas that can either reduce the oxygen content in the air or interfere with the body's ability to use oxygen. Exposure to an asphyxiant can result inunconsciousness or death due to being unable to breathe. 1

American Industrial Hygiene Association. 6

A respirator that is connected to a compressed breathing air source by a hose of small inside diameter. The air is delivered continuously or intermittently in a sufficient volume to meet the wearer's breathing requirements. 6

An abnormal response of a hyper sensitive person to chemical and physical stimuli. Allergic manifestations of major importance occur in about 10 percent of the population. 6

The American National Standards Institute is a voluntary membership organization (run with private funding) that develops consensus standards nationally for a wide variety of devices and procedures. 6

Tests that are conducted to determine the hearing ability of a person. These tests may be used to establish an employee's baseline hearing, to identify any subsequent hearing loss, and to monitor the effectiveness of noise controls. 1

ACGIH is a professional society of government workers and educators who work to promote occupational safety and health. The organization publishes recommendations on ventilation, air sampling and air concentration guidelines (threshold limit values or TLVS) designed to control exposure of workers to chemicals, noise and radiation in the workplace. 1

ATSDR is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. As mandated by the federal superfund law, the agency assesses health risks from hazardous waste sites on the National Priority List. ATSDR determines if additional health studies are needed at these sites, provides health advisories and publishes toxicological profiles on chemicals found at hazardous waste sites. ATSDR also maintains exposure registries of people exposed to certain substances. 7

As Low As Reasonably Practicable 4

This concept relates to the probability of suffering disease or injury that will be tolerated by an individual, group or society. Acceptability of risk depends on the scientific data, social, economic and political factors, and on the perceived benefits arising from the a chemical or process. 2

The health effects of a mixture which are equal to the sum of the effects of the components of the mixture. 1

The diameter of a spherical particle of unit density that has the same settling velocity in air as the particle in question. 2

The presence of substances in the atmosphere resulting either from human activity or natural processes, present in sufficient concentration, for a sufficient time and under circumstances such as to interfere with the comfort, health, or welfare of persons or the environment. 2

Anthropometry is the science that defines physical measures of a person’s size, form, and functional capacities. As applied to occupational injury prevention, anthropometric measurements are used to evaluate the interaction of workers with tasks, tools, machines, vehicles, and personal protective equipment, especially in regard to determining degree of protection afforded against hazardous exposures, whether chronic or acute. 5

A critical examination of an accident for the purpose of identifying its contributing factors prescribing measures designed to prevent their reoccurrence. 16

Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level 18

The physiological and behavioral adjustments of an organism to changes in its environment. 20

An antigen molecule capable of being recognized by the immune system) that causes and allergic reaction. 21

Body mapping is a technique that is used to identify health problems related to a person's job, in which workers indicate on a map of the body where they are experiencing aches and pains, cuts or bruising, illness or other conditions. 8

Biological monitoring is the measurement in the workers, body of biological markers (biomarkers) related to occupational exposures. Exposure biomarkers are concentrations of exposure substances in human tissues, cells, or fluids. Examples are blood lead concentrations, pesticide metabolites in urine, and solvent concentrations in exhaled breath. Other biomarkers may be defined as biochemical alterations or responses to exposures, or indicators of host susceptibility. Workers exposed to certain chemical agents (for example, lead) should undergo routine biological monitoring to measure the levels of the original substance, their metabolites or related measurable changes in biological samples. Systematic information from biological monitoring of workers populations can be used for occupational epidemiology research. However, although the use of biomarkers has opened a new promising field for epidemiology, constraints of this approach should be noticed. Knowledge on biomarker distributions in general populations and on inter-individual and intra-individual variability is often limited. On the other hand, for many exposures there are not available valid or applicable biomarkers. 1

The total amount of a chemical in the body. Some chemicals build up in the body because they are stored in body organs like fat or bone or are eliminated very slowly. 9

Organisms or products of organisms that present a risk to humans. 6

Stoppage of work under the direction of the worker certified member and the management certified member when both members have reason to believe that dangerous circumstances exist. 1

Any living organism (for example, virus or bacteria) that affects the body, a part of the body, or any of its functions. The effects may be beneficialor harmful. 1

The area surrounding the worker's head. The make-up of air in this area is thought to be representative of the air that is actually breathed in by the worker. 1

Bhopal gas tragedy was a gas leak incident in India, considered the world’s worst industrial disaster. It occurred in the early morning hours of December 3, 1984, a rolling wind carried a poisonous gray cloud from the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (India). Forty tons of toxic gas (Methy-Iso-Cyanate, MIC) and other toxins were accidentally released from Union Carbide’s Bhopal plant, which leaked and spread throughout the city. The toxic substance made its way in and around the shantytowns located near the plant. Estimates vary on the death toll.

The official immediate death toll was 2,259. The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release. Others estimate 8,000 died within two weeks and another 8,000 or more have since died from gas-related diseases. A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial injuries and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.

The result was a nightmare that still has no end, residents awoke to clouds of suffocating gas and began running desperately through the dark streets, victims arrived at hospitals; breathless and blind. The lungs, brain, eyes, muscles as well as gastro-intestinal, neurological, reproductive and immune systems of those who survived were severely affected and a smell of burning chili peppers lingered in the air.

Dead bodies of humans and animals blocked the street, leaves turned black and a smell of burning chili peppers lingered in the air. An estimated 10,000 or more people died. About 500,000 more people suffered agonizing injuries with disastrous effects of the massive poisoning. None can say if future generations will not be affected.

UCIL was the Indian subsidiary of Union Carbide Corporation (UCC), with Indian Government controlled banks and the Indian public holding a 49.1 percent stake. In 1994, the Supreme Court of India allowed UCC to sell its 50.9 percent interest in UCIL to Eveready industries India Ltd. (EIIL), which subsequently merged with McLeod Russel (India) Ltd. Eveready Industries India, Limited, ended clean-up on the site in 1998, when it terminated its 99-year lease and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh, Dow Chemical Company, purchased UCC in 2001, seventeen years after the disaster.

Civil and criminal cases are pending in the District court of Bhopal, India, involving UCC and Warren Anderson, UCC CEO at the time of the disaster. In June 2010, seven ex-employees, including the former UCIL chairman, were convicted in Bhopal of causing death by negligence and sentenced to two years imprisonment and a fine of about $2,000 each, the maximum punishment allowed by Indian law. An eighth former employee was also convicted, but died before the judgement was passed.

The company involved in what became the worst industrial accident in history immediately tried to dissociate itself from legal responsibility. Eventually it reached a settlement with the Indian Government through mediation of that country's Supreme Court and accepted moral responsibility. It paid $470 million in compensation, a relatively small amount of based on significant underestimations of the long-term health consequences of exposure and the number of people exposed. The disaster indicated a need for enforceable international standards for environmental safety, preventative strategies to avoid similar accidents and industrial disaster preparedness.

Some moves by the Indian government, including the formation of the MoEF, have served to offer some protection of the public's health from the harmful practices of local and multinational heavy industry and grassroots organizations that have also played a part in opposing rampant development.

Further information can be obtained from:

A code of practice is an industry guideline to help in the management of operations based on regulations or best practice. A code of practice is not law, but should be followed unless there is an alternative course of action that achieves the same or better standards. A code of practice can also be used where no legislation exists. 8

A study in which people with a disease (cases) are compared to people without the disease (controls) to see if their past exposures to chemicals or other risk factors were different. 9

A change that occurs in the body over a relatively long time (weeks, months, years) following repeated exposure or a single over-exposure to a substance. 1

A study in which a group of people with a past exposure to chemicals or other risk factors are followed over time and their disease experience compared to that of a group of people without the exposure. 9

The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another substance or medium. For example, sea water has a higher concentration of salt than fresh water does. 9

Any substance that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found. Contaminants are usually referred to in a "negative" sense and include substances that spoil food, pollute the environment or cause other adverse effects. 1

The CDC, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, provides federal leadership in the prevention and control of diseases. The CDC includes many programs that conduct research and provide information on public health issues such as occupational health, AIDS, cancer, infectious diseases and other diseases. 7

Chemical Abstracts Service is an organization under the American Chemical Society. CAS abstracts and indexes chemical literature from all over the world in "Chemical Abstracts." "CAS Numbers" are used to identify specific chemicals or mixtures. 6

A chemical, physical or biological agent that can cause cancer in humans or animals. 1

A chemical substance that affects the body, a part of the body, or any of its functions. The effects may be beneficial or harmful. 1

Repeated exposure to a hazardous agent. 1

An injury for which the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board or a workplace compensation board of a jurisdiction will provide compensation because it arose out of and in the course of work. 1

A space in which a hazardous gas, vapour, dust or fume may collector in which oxygen may be used up because of the construction of the space, its location, contents, or the work activity carried out in it. It is an area which is not designed for continuous human occupancy and has limited opening for entry, exits or ventilation. 1

Measures designed to eliminate or reduce hazards or hazardous exposures.Examples include: engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment. Hazards can be controlled at the source, along the path to the worker, orat the worker. 1

The Occupational Health and Safety Act of Ontario defines critical injury as serious injury that is life-threatening, produces unconsciousness, results in a substantial loss of blood, involves the fracture of a leg or arm (but not a finger or toe), involves the amputation of a leg, arm, hand or foot (but not a finger or toe), consists of burns to a major portion of the body, causes the loss of sight in an eye. 1

The maximum exposure to an airborne concentration of a chemical, biological or physical agent that is not to be exceeded for any length of time. 1

The adjective applied to anything that is harmful to the cell structure and function and ultimately causing cell death. 2

The pathological condition where there is an excessive concentration of reduced haemoglobin in the blood. This results in blue appearance of the skin, especially on the face and extremities, indicating the lack of sufficient oxygen in arterial blood. 2

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a median entrapment neuropathy that causes paresthesia, pain, numbness, and other symptoms in the distribution of the median nerve due to its compression at the wrist in the carpal tunnel. 3

A respirator that uses various chemical substances to purify inhaled air of certain gases and vapors. This type respirator is effective for concentrations no more than ten times the TLV of the contaminant, if the contaminant has warning properties (odor or irritation) below the TLV. 6

Pertaining to or affecting the skin. 6

Chemical Transportation Emergency Center. Public service of the Chemical Manufacturers Association that provides immediate advice for those at the scene of hazardous materials emergencies. 6

Chemical Hazards Information and Packaging. 4

Change Agents for Safety & Health 18

As defined u/r 2(a) of the Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness, and Response) Rules, 1996, it means an accident involving a fortuitous or sudden or unintended occurrence while handling any hazardous chemicals .[defined in rule 2(b)] resulting in continuous, intermittent or repeated exposure to death or injury to any person or damage to any property but does not include an accident by reason only of war or radioactivity.18

'Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health' Regulations 1994, published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK18

A practical and reasonable person with sufficient documented training and experience , who knows what to look for , how to recognize it when they see it, and how to deal with it to make it safe . They also know and work within the limits of their competence. 21

Referring to the skin. For example, dermal absorption means absorption through the skin. 1

The smallest amount of substance that a laboratory test can reliably measure in a sample of air, water, soil or other medium. 7

The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. 7

A unit used to measure the relative power of sound. A 3 dB increase in sound output power represents a doubling of the perceptible volume. 10

A broader term than dermatitis; it includes any cutaneous abnormality, thus encompassing folliculitis, acne, pigmentary changes, and nodules and tumors. 6

Correlation between the amount of exposure to an agent or toxic chemical and the resulting effect on the body. 6

Shortness of breath, difficult or labored breathing. 6

An area or location where the probability of injury is high (for example, in the vicinity of saw blades). 1

Inflammation of the skin. Symptoms of dermatitis may include: redness, blisters, and cracks in the skin. 1

A biological, chemical, or physical agent specified as a designated substance by a regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Designated substances are substances that are known to be particularly hazardous. The use of a designated substance in the workplace may either be not allowed or strictly controlled by law. 1

A biological, chemical, or physical agent specified as a designated substance by a regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Designated substances are substances that are known to be particularly hazardous. The use of a designated substance in the workplace may either be not allowed or strictly controlled by law. 1

An injury that prevents a person from coming to work or doing his or her usual job duties. 1

The taking of every precaution reasonable in the circumstances for the protection of the health and safety of workers. 1

Fine particles of a solid that can remain suspended in air. The particle size of a dust is larger than that of a fume. Dusts are produced by mechanical action, such as grinding. Some dusts may be harmful to an employee's health. 1

Reduce the toxicity of a substance either (1) by making it less harmful or (2) by treating patients suffering from poisoning in such away as to reduce the probability and/or severity of harmful effects. 2

Sometimes called general ventilation. Uncontaminated air is added to contaminated air to reduce the concentration of the contaminant. 16

Equipment that provides a direct readout device of a contaminant without further off-site laboratory analysis. 16

It is directly concerned with the protection of machinery, materials and manufactured goods assets from accidental loss within the factory. Indirectly it is concerned with money asset and manpower asset.

Damage can be defined as severity of injury or the physical, functional or monetary loss that could result if control of a hazard is lost. 16

Ergonomics is the science of designing, developing and adapting or building equipment that meets the needs of the human body. 8

An evaluation is making a judgment about something (a document, task, process, system, etc.) against a set of accepted standards. 8

Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be either short term (acute) or long term (chronic). 9

A process that estimates the amount of a chemical that enters or comes into contact with people or animals. An exposure assessment also describes how often and for how long an exposure occurred, and the nature and size of a population exposed to a chemical. Accurate exposure assessment is a challenge in almost every observational study. During the past years the methods for occupational exposure assessment have greatly developed, including approaches based on modelling of occupational hygiene data, expert's exposure ratings, or specific questionnaires. Biological markers may also provide valuable information for occupational exposure assessment. 9

A measurement of energy equal to the amount of energy it takes to move 1 electron through 1 volt of potential. 10

A category of hazard control that uses physical/ engineering methods to eliminate or minimize the hazard. Examples of engineering controls include: ventilation, isolation, elimination, enclosure, substitution and design of the workplace or equipment. 1

The surrounding conditions, influences, and forces to which an employee is exposed in the workplace. 1

The science that deals with the study of disease in a general population. The rate of occurrence and distribution of a particular disease (by age,gender or occupation) may provide information about the causes of disease. 1

The records kept by an employer, or company doctor or nurse of an employee's exposure to a hazardous material or physical agent in the workplace.These records show the time, level and length of exposure for each substance oragent involved. 1

The airborne concentrations of a biological, chemical, or physical agent to which it is believed nearly all workers may be exposed without experiencing any harmful effects. 1

The giving off of environmental pollutants from various sources. 2

It includes interaction between microbes, plants and animals and their environment, which are primarily affected by climate, water resources, soil and man, ecosystem studies, ecology of grasslands, woodlands and wetlands, arid zones and high altitude environments, coastal ecosystem, mangroves, aquatic ecosystem, fresh waiter, river basins, brackish water, marine, estuarine and soil ecology. 18

Emergency could be defined as any situation, which presents a threat to safety of person or/and property. It may require outside help also.

As defined in clause 2(j) of Schedule 19 of Chemical Works u/r 102 of the Gujarat Factories Rules (GFR), emergency means a situation leading to a circumstance or set of circumstances in which there is a danger to the life or health of persons or which could result in big fire or explosion or pollution to the work and outside environment, affecting the workers or neighbourhood in a serious manner, demanding immediate action.

It is also defined as, 'a dynamic incident in which there is continuing potential for major injury, ill health, damage to property, to the process or to the environment.'18

In its broad meaning it includes Government policies, planning, programmes, regulations and legislations, international agreements, environmental impact assessments(EIA), environmental education, environmental law and legal actions, sustainable development, siting of industries, clean technologies, eco-development and ecosystem management, managerial aspects of forestry, biosphere, conservation, waste and wildlife. 18

It means to move all people from a threatened area to a safer area. It is required as a function of Onsite or Offsite Emergency Plan. 18

Early Suppression, Fast Response.19

Event tree analysis ; A quantified risk assessment technique.21

Flammables have a minimum concentration below which propagation of flame does not occur on contact with a source of ignition. This is known as the lower flammable explosive limit (LEL). There is also a maximum concentration of vapor or gas in air above which propagation of flame does not occur. This is known as the upper flammable explosive limit (UEL). These units are expressed in percent of gas or vapor in air by volume. 6

Death resulting from an accident. 1

The immediate care given to a person who is injured or who suddenly becomes ill. It can range from disinfecting a cut and applying a bandage to helping someone who is choking or having a heart attack. 1

Finely divided solid particles that are formed when a hot metal vapour cools and condenses. Fumes are usually associated with molten metals (for example, copper, lead or zinc and are often accompanied by a chemical reaction such as oxidation. 1

Transient reduced ability to work as a result of previous activity, resulting in reduced efficiency. 4

The minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off vapor within a test vessel in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. 6

Gas that when mixed with air forms a flammable mixture at ambient temperature and pressure. 4

Liquid with a flashpoint below 100°F (37.8°C). 4

Solid that is liable to cause fires through friction, absorption of moisture, etc. or which can be readily ignited. 4

Failure Modes and Effect Analysis; a quantified risk assessment technique. 21

Fault Tree Analysis; a quantified risk assessment technique. 21

When a portion of the visual field has a significantly higher luminance than its surroundings, resulting in reduced contrast. 4

A state of matter in which the material has very low density and viscosity; can expand and contract greatly in response to changes in temperature and pressure; easily diffuses into other gases; readily and uniformly distributes itself throughout any container. A gas can be changed to the liquid or solid state only by the combined effect of increased pressure and decreased temperature. Examples include sulfur dioxide, ozone, and carbon monoxide. 6

HAPS, which are also known as toxic air pollutants or air toxics, are those pollutants that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects. Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene, which is found in gasoline; perchlorethlyene, which is emitted from some dry cleaning facilities; and methylene chloride, which is used as a solvent and paint stripper by a number of industries 11

Excess materials remaining after a process which has toxic or radioactive properties dangerous to health. 11

Compared with the general population, workers have generally better health that permits employment. The healthy worker effect has been typically observed when mortality rates of employed population are compared with those in the general population, the workers, cohort showing lower mortality rates. The healthy worker effect can be considered as a selection bias in regards to the comparison group, or as a confounding consequence of the factor previous health status, associated both to exposureand to subsequent health status. Potential causes and effects of the healthy worker effect should be properly evaluated in any occupational epidemiology study. 12

This effect refers to the selection process by which workers affected by their occupational exposure terminate prematurely their working life or transfer from higher to lesser exposed jobs, generally leading to under-estimation of risks and dose-response estimation. The healthy worker survivor effect is most prominent in cross sectional studies of disease prevalence and exposure. 12

The potential of any machine, equipment, process, material (includingbiological and chemical) or physical factor that may cause harm to people, or damage to property or the environment. 1

Any substance that may produce adverse health and/or safety effects to people or the environment. 1

The World Health Organization has defined health as more than just the absence of disease. Rather, it is a state of complete physical, mental and socialwell-being. 1

A policy is a statement of intent, and a commitment to plan for coordinated management action. A policy should provide a clear indication of acompany's health and safety objectives. This, in turn, will provide direction for the health and safety program. 1

A systematic combination of activities, procedures, and facilities designed to ensure and maintain a safe and healthy workplace. 1

This term is used today to include not just workers errors, but engineering deficiencies and lack of adequate organizational controls which together account for the majority of accidents. 1

A broad term for personal health habits that may reduce or prevent the exposure of a worker to chemical or biological substances. Hygiene practices include not smoking, eating or drinking in the work area washing up before breaks and meals, removing contaminated clothing before leaving work, keeping street clothes separate from contaminated work clothing. 1

The condition of being reactive to substances that normally would not affect most people. 1

A condition in which body temperature drops below normal (36?Cor 96.8?F). It most frequently develops from being exposed to very low temperatures. Hypothermia can cause death. 1

Hazardous Chemical Warning Signs. 4

Hazard and Operability study. 21

Hazard Analysis. 21

An action taken at a contaminated site to reduce the chances of human or environmental exposure to site contaminants. Interim remedial measures are planned and carried out before comprehensive remedial studies. They can prevent additional damage during the study phase, but don't interfere in any way with the need to develop a complete remedial program. An example of an interim remedial measure is removing drums of chemicals to a storage facility from a site that has drums sitting in an empty field. 7

IARC, part of the World Health Organization, is an international organization that evaluates the human cancer risk from chemical exposure. IARC evaluates scientific studies on chemicals and publishes critical reviews on the cancer risks of these substances. IARC also identifies further research that is needed to evaluate the cancer- causing ability of some chemicals. 13

An atmospheric concentration of any toxic, corrosive or asphyxiant substance that poses an immediate threat to life or would cause irreversible or delayed adverse health effects or would interfere with an individual's ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. 6

Taking in by the mouth. 6

Breathing of a substance in the form of a gas, vapor, fume, mist, or dust. 1

Incapable of being dissolved in a liquid. 6

A chemical, which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. 6

An unwanted event which, in different circumstances, could have resulted inharm to people, damage to property or loss to a process. 1

A science that deals with the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of hazards in the workplace. These hazards may cause sickness, harm to employee health, discomfort, and inefficient performance on the job. Also known as occupational hygiene. 1

To force or drive liquid or gas into the body. 1

The process of systematically evaluating injury statistics to identify trends in such areas as age, gender, occupation of those getting injured on the job, part of body involved, machinery involved, process or work activity involved, time of day, location frequency, severity. 1

The number of compensable injuries per 200,000 employee hours of exposure. 1

A number that relates total days lost due to compensable injuries to the total hours worked during a specific period. 1

Integrated Risk Information System 7

Materials which could cause dangerous reactions from direct contact with one another. 6

The minimum temperature to initiate or cause self-sustained combustion in the absence of any source of ignition. 6

A measure of the amount of light falling on a particular point, measured in Lux. 4

Injury (occupational) means an injury that result in death, loss of consciousness and administration of medical treatment, temporary assignment to other duties and transfer to another job, or inability to perform all duties on any day after the injury.

Injury is considered to include occupational disease and work-connected disability. Work injury is defined as an injury suffered by a person, which arises out of and in the course of his employment. It is an external damage to human body; disturbance or dysfunction resulted from an accident. By cause it may be mechanical, thermal, chemical, radiated or combined. 18

International Commission on Occupational Health4

A job safety analysis is a tool used to define and control hazards associated with a particular job or task. 1

The sum of all tasks carried out by a person toward the completion of some goal. 1

A step-by-step method of identifying the hazards associated with a particular task; also known as Job Safety Analysis (JSA). 19

Fatality, permanent disability or injury involving time lost from work of one day/shift or more. 14

The lower limit of flammability of a gas or vapor at ordinary ambient temperatures expressed in percent of the gas or vapor in air by volume. This limit is assumed constant for temperatures up to 120oC (250oF). Above this, it should be decreased by a factor of 0.7 because explosibility increases with higher temperatures. 6

The contaminant is captured at its source, usually by the use of hoods, ducts or vents located near or directly over the source. This is the preferred method where toxic contaminants are released and there is the potential for worker exposure. 1

The time that elapses between exposure and the first manifestation of damage.6

Legislation comprises the laws passed as Acts of Parliament. Acts may include regulations. Regulations are requirements that support the general rulings of the legislation.8

Unit of measurement of illumination, equivalent to lumen per square.4

This type of document contains important information to allow users to safely manage the risk from exposure to a hazardous chemical/substance or dangerous goods. 8

Monitoring is the process of observing and checking the progress, state or quality of a task or process. 8

The highest (maximum) level of a contaminant allowed to go uncorrected by a public water system under federal or state regulations. Depending on the contaminant, allowable levels might be calculated as an average over time, or might be based on individual test results. Corrective steps are implemented if the MCL is exceeded. 7

Illness or disease. A morbidity rate for a certain illness is the number of people with that illness divided by the number of people in the population from which the illnesses were counted. 7

A unit of electric current expressed in amperes. 10

As applied to a tumor. Cancerous and capable of under going metastasis, or invasion of surrounding tissue. 6

Transfer of the causal agent (cell or microorganism) of a disease from a primary focus to a distant one through the blood or lymphatic vessels. Also, spread of malignancy from site of primary cancer to secondary sites. 6

Suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up a liquid into a dispersed state, such as by splashing, foaming, or atomizing. Mist is formed when a finely divided liquid is suspended in air. 6

Injuries to the system of muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, bones and related structures of the human body. Also known as musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). 1

An agent that causes sudden and permanent changes in one or more hereditary features, generally by modifying one or more genes (changes to genetic material). The changes may or may not be passed on to off spring. 1

Located on the west side of Delhi, Mayapuri has thousands of workers in the scrap trade, with different shops specializing in different metals. Most of the scrap originates from overseas. Trading companies import containers of discarded metals to the outskirts of the city, where they are sold to haulers who sell the metals to the shops of Mayapuri. The shops, in turn, often sell to foundries.

In April 2010, the locality of Mayapuri was affected by a serious radiological accident. An AECL Gammacell 220 research irradiator owned by Delhi University since 1968, but unused since 1985, was sold at auction to a scrap metal dealer in Mayapuri on February 26, 2010 for Rs. 1.5 lakh. The orphan source arrived at a scrap yard in Mayapuri during March, where it was dismantled by workers unaware of the hazardous nature of the device. The cobalt-60 source was cut into eleven pieces. The smallest of the fragments was taken by a worker who kept it in his wallet, two fragments were moved to a nearby shop, while the remaining eight remained in the scrap yard. All of the sources were recovered by mid-April and transported to the Narora Atomic Power Station, where it was claimed that all radioactive material originally contained within the device was accounted for. The material remains in the custody of the Department of Atomic Energy.

This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. Five patients treated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents. 3

Mine Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. 6

Any means of transporting or supporting a load manually,lifting, putting down, pushing down,pushing, pulling, carrying or moving by hand or bodily force. 21

NAS is a private, non profit corporation established by Congress to investigate and report on science and technology at the request of the federal government. The National Research Council (NRC) is a part of the NAS and has reported on public health problems such as chemical contamination of drinking water. 7

The NIEHS tries to reduce human illness from environmental causes by understanding environmental factors, individual susceptibility and age. The NIEHS conducts biomedical research programs, prevention and intervention efforts, and education. 7

NIOSH, part of the Centers for Disease Control, conducts research on worker safety and health and recommends standards for worker protection to OSHA. For example, NIOSH recommends guidelines for workplace exposure to hazardous substances and has published criteria documents on many chemicals. 7

NIH, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, conducts scientific research into the causes, prevention and cure of diseases. For example, the National Cancer Institute (part of NIH) studies how some environmental chemicals cause cancer. Many other diseases, some related to chemical exposure, are also under study at NIH. 7

NTP, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), coordinates the toxicology research being conducted within DHHS. The NTP selects priority chemicals for study, develops necessary testing procedures and coordinates the research done by programs in three DHHS agencies: NIH, FDA and CDC. 7

Typically focus on measurement of loss such as LTI/D, and costs of injury. Also called outcome or lag indicators as the time required for trends to become apparent usually lag well behind implementation of initiatives. 15

The main physical characteristics of a workplace injury or illness (for example, burn, cut, sprain, dermatitis, hearing loss). 1

Unwanted sound that can lead to hearing loss or stress, or interfere with the ability to hear other sounds or to communicate. 1

Dust that does not cause disease or harmful effects when exposures are kept at reasonable levels. 1

The National Fire Protection Association is a voluntary membership organization whose aim is to promote and improve fire protection and prevention. 6

Noise Induced Hearing Loss. 4

Agent that depresses brain functions . eg. Organic solvents. 21

An incident, which doesnot show a visible result , but had the potential to do so. 21

The omission to do something, which a reasonable person , guided upon those considerations which ordinarily regulate the conduct of human affairs would do, or something which a prudent and reasonable man would not do. 21

The Branch of The United States Department of Labor tasked with statutes and enforcement pertaining to worker and occupational safety.

An OHS management system is one used to identify and control or reduce OHS risks with in an organisation. This includes the processes involved inidentifying hazards and assessing and controlling the associated risks, as well as the documentation used to record these processes. 8

Occupational environmental monitoring is intended to gather information on occupational exposures in the environment external to the worker through direct measurements. Intensity and duration of exposure can be measured. For chemicals the term concentration is also used to refer to the amount of the substance per unit of environmental medium (for example, micrograms of lead per cubic metre of air). Strategies for environmental monitoring are usually based on grouping procedures (that is, applying a sampling strategy intended to describe environmental exposures of a group of workers with similar tasks, using similar agents and/or working under similar conditions). Area measurements (such as through air samplers) or personal measurements (through personal dosimeters) can be conducted. 12

In retrospective occupational epidemiological studies it is crucial to collect accurate occupational histories of individuals in the study to properly assess occupational exposures of interest. Occupational history data are usually obtained from personnel records in industry based studies, or may be obtained from questionnaires in community based studies. Important items to be considered in occupational histories include industry or type of business, company name and location, dates of employment, job titles and associated dates started and stopped, tasks or activities developed, and equipments and materials used. In some situations information can also be gathered regarding specific working conditions that can act as exposure determinants (for example, use of personal protection or other occupational health and safety determinants). Population based registries, such as cancer or congenital malformations registries, and routinely collected vital records, such as death or birth certificates, sometimes include some information on occupational history. 12

The lowest concentration of a chemical that can be smelled. Different chemicals have different odor thresholds. Also, some people can smell a chemical at lower concentrations than others can. 7

Process(es) which give(s) rise to damage, injury or ill-health. 15

Occupational exposures include physical conditions(for example, structural insecurity ordeficient lighting), physical stress (for example,lifting heavy weights or repetitive strain injuries),physical agents (for example, noise, vibration, orradiation), chemicals (for example, dusts orsolvents), biological agents (for example, bacteriaor viruses), and psychosocial stressors (for example,low control over job tasks or poor communication with workmates, see Job strain model).Although many occupational exposures may occur as environmental exposures for the general population,workers are usually exposed to higher levels and are frequently the focus of research on health effects of these exposures and agents. 12

The development, promotion, and maintenance of workplace policies and programs that ensure the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of employees. These policies and programs strive to prevent harmful health effects because of the work environment, protect employees from health hazards while on the job, place employees in work environments that are suitable to their physical and mental make-up, address other factors that may affect an employee's health and well-being, such as ineffective organization of work, harassment and violence in the workplace, the need to balance work and family responsibilities (e.g., elder care, child care) promote healthy life styles. 1

A harmful condition or sickness that results from exposure in the workplace to a biological, chemical, or physical agent or an ergonomic hazard. 1

The maintenance of a work environment that is relatively free from actual or potential hazards that can injure employees. 1

A substance that gives up oxygen readily. Presence of an oxidizer increases the fire hazard.6

Occupational Exposure Limits.17

Occupational and Environmental Medicine.17

PDCA is an abbreviation for an OHS implementation approach based onfour steps: Plan, Do, Check, Act. 8

A policy is a line of action adopted from other considerations, such as government legislation, to guide and determine present and future decisions. Policies provide an over all plan with general goals. 1

The part of the person's body that is directly affected by a workplace injury or illness (for example, head, ears, arm, wrist, back, leg, foot). 1

Parts of gas or vapour per million parts of air by volume at room temperature. For example, 1 cubic centimetre of gas in 1 million cubic centimetres of air has a concentration of 1 PPM. 1

A technique used to determine an individual's personal exposure to a chemical, physical or biological agent. This is done by means of a sampling device worn on the worker's body (e.g., personal monitor). The monitoring of hazardous chemicals is done at the breathing zone; the monitoring of noise is done at the ears. 1

Any device worn by a worker to protect against hazards. Some examples are: respirators, gloves, ear plugs, hard hats, safety goggles and safety shoes. 1

A source of energy (for example, noise, radiation, vibration, heat)that affects the body, a part of the body, or any of its functions. The effects may bebeneficial or harmful. 1

A set of guidelines that are helpful in carrying out a specific type of work. 1

A system for preventing machinery and equipment failure through scheduled regular maintenance, knowledge of reliability of parts, maintenance of service records, scheduled replacement of parts, maintenance of inventories of the least reliable parts and parts scheduled for replacement. 1

A suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in air, such as dust, fog, fume, mist, smoke or sprays. Particulate matter suspended in air is commonly known as an aerosol. 6

An area of chemicals moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume, for example, can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater. 7

Both a methodology to ensure safety and a set of standards enforced by OSHA programs. PSM focuses its safety activities on chemical-related systems, such as water treatment plants and chemical manufacturing plants, wherein there are large piping systems, storage, blending and distributing activities.19

A formal written or verbal authority to operate a planned procedures which is designed to protect personnel, working in hazardous areas or activities . Authority for a safe system of work.21

Is non quantifiable?. It attempts to explain the ways people come to account for, take action and otherwise manage their day to day situations. With qualitative research, most analysis is done with words. Some typical methods of qualitative data sources are observation, open ended or unstructured interviews and conversational analysis. 15

Can be measured or a number applied and variables correlated (eg, through use of statistics). Some typical sources of quantitative data are injury statistics, measurements of airborne contaminants and noise surveys. Questionnaires also give quantitative results. 15

Regulations are the rules, procedures, guidelines, codes of practice and soon written by a body given authority by an Act of Parliament. The WorkCover/WorkSafe Authority in your state/territory is an example of a body authorised to make regulations. 8

A risk is the chance, high or low, that a hazard will cause harm, injury, illhealth, damage or loss. 8

A risk control strategy is a set of procedures designed to reduce the risk ofan incident occurring. 8

A process which estimates the likelihood that exposed people may have health effects. Steps in risk assessment for a given exposure include: (1) hazard identification, or the evaluation of evidence on negative effects on human health from the exposure; (2) exposure assessment, or determination of the specific agents, routes, amount and duration of exposure causing human damage; (3) dose-response estimation, to extra polate available evidence on the relation between dose and adverse health response to human conditions of exposure; and (4) risk characterisation, combining exposure assessment with dose response assessment to quantify the risks from a given exposure to human populations. From some occupational epidemiology studies, usually cohort studies, dose-response relations can be derived and used to set regulatory standards, although most epidemiological research can only contribute to occupational hazard identification or to explore the plausibility of resumed exposure/ disease associations (for example, from animal experiments). 12

The process of deciding how and to what extent to reduce or eliminate risk factors by considering the risk assessment, engineering factors (Can procedures or equipment do the job, for how long and how well ), social, economic and political concerns. 7

The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water. See "Exposure". 8

The consistency or repeatability of the information. 15

The energy transmitted by waves through space or some medium. There are two types of radiation: ionizing (for example, X-Rays or radiation from a radioactive device), and non-ionizing radiation (for example, infra-red radiation, ultraviolet radiation). 1

The capability of a substance to under go a chemical reaction with the release of energy. Unwanted effects include: pressure build-up, temperature increase, and formation of harmful by-products. These effects may occur because of the reactivity of a substance to heat, an ignition source, or direct contact with other chemicals in use or in storage. 1

A problem with the muscles, tendons or nerves that happens over time due to overuse. Examples of repetitive strain injuries include: carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis. 1

Any material that can affect the development of sperm and egg cells. This can lead to an inability to have children, birth defects and other harmful changes. 1

Small particles that can be breathed in and reach parts of the respiratory system where they may have a harmful effect (for example, the lungs). 1

The probability of a worker suffering an injury or health problem, or of damage occurring to property or the environment as a result of exposure to or contact with a hazard. 1

The real or underlying cause(s) of an event.Distinguished from immediate cause(s) which are usually quite apparent. 1

The method by which a contaminant can enter the body. There are four main routes of entry. Contaminants can be breathed in, swallowed, absorbed through the skin, or injected into the bloodstream. 1

Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals regulation. The regulation gives greater responsibility to industry to manage the risks from chemicals and to provide safety information on the substances.a quantified risk assessment technique. 21

A safe operating procedure is a step-by-step description of the safest way to carry out a task. It includes the risks associated with the task and incorporates appropriate risk controls. 8

A safe work method statement is similar to a job safety analysis. A safework method statement documents a process for identifying and controlling health and safety hazards and risks. 8

Stakeholders include anyone with an interest in the safety of the workers in your organisation. This includes colleagues, managers, supervisors, OHS committees, suppliers, clients/customers and members of the broader community, such as healthcare professionals and the families of the workers. 8

Strictly, free from harm or risk. Exposure to a chemical usually has some risk associated with it, although the risk may be very small. However, many people use the word safe to mean something that has a very low risk or one that is acceptable to them. 7

A number calculated from data that quantifies a particular set of data. 15

A substance which on first exposure causes little or no reaction but which on repeated exposure may cause a marked response not necessarily limited to the contact site. Skin sensitization is the most common form of sensitization in the industrial setting. 1

Maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for a short period of time (15 minutes) for only four times through out the day with at least one hour between exposures. 6

The process of taking small representative quantities of a gas, liquid, or solid for the purpose of analysis. 1

The object, substance, exposure, or body motion that directly caused a work place injury or illness (for example, boxes, powered hand tools, acids, lead, cold, running, walking). 1

A guideline, rule, principle, or model that is used as a means to compare, measure or judge performance, quality, quantity, etc. 1

A set of physical reactions that take place in the body in response to demands that are placed on it. These reactions prepare the body for action. 1

A source of stress. 1

Self-contained breathing apparatus. 6

A material that a removes toxic gases and vapors from air inhaled through a canister or cartridge. (2) Material used to collect gases and vapors during air-sampling. 6

Cooperative action of substances whose total effect is greater than the sum of their separate effects. 6

Spread throughout the body, affecting all body systems and organs, not localized in one spot or area.6

So Far As Is Reasonably Practicable .21

An organ (such as the liver or kidney) that is specifically affected by a toxic chemical. 7

Are all injuries that are recorded in the workplace. This usually includes first aid treatments, medical treatment injuries and lost time injuries/diseases. 15

The lowest dose or exposure to a chemical at which a specific effect is observed. 6

A relative property of a chemical agent and refers to a harmful effect on some biologic mechanism and the conditions under which this effect occurs. 6

The time weighted average concentration or levels of a chemical or biological agent for an 8-hour day or a 40-hour week to which it is believed nearly all workers may be exposed, day after day,without experiencing harmful effects. 1

A threshold limit value refers to the airborne concentration of a substance to which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day (for 8 hours per day) without harmful effect. Because of individual susceptibility, however, a small percentage of workers may experience discomfort from substances in concentrations at or below the threshold limit. A smaller percentage may be affected more seriously by aggravation of a pre-existing condition orby the development of an occupational illness. 1

Harmful or poisonous. 1

Any substance that can cause acute or chronic effects to a person oris suspected to cause disease or injury under certain conditions. 1

The event that directly resulted in a workplace injury orillness (for example, struck against, caught in, over-exertion). 1

Tolerance of Risk. 21

The EPA enforces federal environmental protection laws. It registers and regulates pesticides, enforces laws covering outdoor air and drinking water quality and regulates the disposal of hazardous and solid wastes. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic database containing information on health effects that may result from exposure to chemicals. IRIS is intended for those without extensive training in toxicology, but with some knowledge of health sciences. 7

The FDA, part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, carries out and enforces laws that protect the quality and safety of foods, food additives, cosmetics and medical drugs and devices. For example, the FDA monitors the quality of foods and drugs through product testing, and reviews food and drug ingredients, including pesticide residues, to determine if they pose health hazards. 7

The highest concentration (expressed in percentvapor or gas in the air by volume) of a substance that will burn or explode when an ignition source is present 1

Stoppage of work under the direction of either the worker certified member or the management certified member when the member has reason to believe that dangerous circumstances exist. 1

An electric current that reverses direction at regular intervals. 10

An electric current of constant direction. 10

Any compound containing carbon, except methane, that can be readily vaporized. 10

Whether the information or the measure actually addresses what it is intended to measure. 15

The form that a gas or liquid takes when it evaporates into the air. 1

The supplying and exhausting of air at the same time to an enclosed machine, room, or an entire building. 1

The back and forth motion of an object (for example, tool, machinery orother piece of equipment) that occurs in a predictable pattern or manner. Over-exposure to vibration can harm a part of the body (for example, the fingers) or it can affect the whole body. 1

The tendency or ability of a liquid to quickly vapourize into the air. Examples of volatile liquids include alcohol and gasoline. Liquids that are volatile must be carefully dispensed and stored. This includes paying special attention to temperature. 1

WHO, an agency of the United Nations, carries out public and environmental health programs throughout the world. For example, WHO trains health personnel and assists countries to provide primary health care, prevent communicable diseases and combat malnutrition. WHO has developed international guidelines for pesticide residues in foods and chemicals in drinking water. 7

Procedures for carrying out specific tasks which, when followed, will ensure that a worker's exposure to hazardous situations, substances or physical agents is controlled by the manner in which the work is carried out. 1

The right of a worker to refuse to work when the worker has reason to believe that he or she would be endangered by performing that work. 1

A surface or plane on which an employee walks or works. 1

The planning of work place environments, structures and equipment so that the potential for injury and illness is reduced or eliminated. 1

An information system implemented under the federal Hazardous Products Act and provincial occupational health and safety laws to ensure communication of information on hazardous materials. The information delivery system under WHMIS requires1) labels, 2) material safety data sheets (MSDSs), and 3) worker education and training programs. 1

A regular and careful check of a work place or part of a work place in order to identify health and safety hazards and to recommend corrective action. Work place factors that have the potential to cause injury or illness to employees include: equipment, materials, processes or work activities, and the environment. 1

Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorder. 19

The workplace may be descriped a any place where people are at work.21

The state in which a machine has been made temporarily incapable of accidental start-up or movement. This state is achieved by shutting off or disconnecting all power sources, and draining, bleeding or blocking all residual energy sources such as: gravity, hydraulics, compressed air, springs, and capacitators. 1

Exposure that is restricted to so low a level that it requires little or no attention. 1