Occupational health refers to the identification and control of the risks arising from physical, chemical, and other workplace hazards in order to establish and maintain a safe and healthy working environment. These hazards may include chemical agents and solvents, heavy metals such as lead and mercury, physical agents such as loud noise or vibration, and physical hazards such as electricity or dangerous machinery.

Environmental health addresses all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person, and all the related factors impacting behaviours. It encompasses the assessment and control of those environmental factors that can potentially affect health. It is targeted towards preventing disease and creating health-supportive environments. This definition excludes behaviour not related to environment, as well as behaviour related to the social and cultural environment, and genetics.

Occupational health is an area concerned with protecting and maintaining the health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. It relates to preventing, recognizing or dealing with the impact of excessive exposure to chemicals, noise, heat, radiation, etc., as well as preventing disease transmission in the workplace. On the other hand, Occupational therapy is the use of treatments to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental or developmental condition. It aims to promote people's health and well being through everyday activities. Occupational therapy practitioners address psychological, social, and environmental factors that may hinder an individual's functioning in different ways. They will work with clients to find ways for them to function with day-to-day activities and doing the things that are important to them.

Presently there is no full time post graduate degree course in occupational health in India. However several institutions offer Diploma in Industrial Health which is a 1-2 year course and Associate Fellow in Industrial Health which is three months course. A list of these institutions is:
(1) AIIHPH, Kolkatta, West Bengal (DIH, Diploma in Industrial Health)
(2) BHEL, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu (Postgraduate Certificate Course in Occupational Health)
(3) Mahatma Gandhi Labour Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (Certificate Course On Industrial Health For Doctors)
(4) Calicut Medical College, Kerala (Diploma in Occupational Health)
(5) Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, Tamilnadu (Diploma in Occupational Health)
(6) Moti Lal Nehru Medical College, Uttar Pradesh (Diploma in Occupational Health)
(7) Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPHG), Gandhinagar (Associate Fellow of Industrial Health)
(8) Lokmanya Medical Research Centre, Pune, Maharashtra (Associate Fellowship in Industrial Health (AFIH))
(9) SRM University, Tamil Nadu (Postgraduate Certificate Course in Occupational Health)

Occupational lung diseases:

(a) Pneumoconioses

     (1) Asbestosis
     (2) Berylliosis
     (3) Chalicosis
     (4) Coalworker's pneumoconiosis (black lung)
     (5) Siderosis
     (6) Silicosis

(b) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

     (1) Bagassosis
     (2) Farmer's lung
     (3) Byssinosis

Skin diseases:
Eczema is by far the most common, but urticaria, sunburn and skin cancer are also of concern. High-risk occupations include:

     (1) Hairdressing
     (2) Catering
     (3) Healthcare
     (4) Printing
     (5) Metal machining
     (6) Motor vehicle repair
     (7) Construction

Other diseases of concern:

     (1) Carpal tunnel syndrome among persons who work in the poultry industry and information technology.
     (2) Computer vision syndrome among persons using information technology for hours.
     (3) Lead poisoning affecting workers in many industries that processed or employed lead or lead compounds.
     (4) Phossy jaws
     (5) Radiation sickness
   (6) Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum among chimney sweeps (see Chimney sweeps'            carcinoma)

The major institutes, which are engaged in occupational health activities in the country, are:
1. National Institute of Occupational Health, (NIOH), Ahmedabad
2. Indian Institute of Toxicological Research (IITR), Lucknow
3. Central Labour Institute (CLI), Mumbai
4. All India Institute Of Hygiene And Public Health (AIIH & PH)
5. Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai
6. Centres for Occupational & Environmental Health, Delhi.

(1) The Factories Act, 1948
(2) The Dock Workers (Safety, Health & Welfare) Act, 1986
(3) The Plantation Labour Act, 1951
(4) The Mines Act, 1952
(5) The Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961
(6) The Beedi & Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act, 1966
(7) The Contract Labour (Regulation & Abolition) Act, 1970
(8) The Building & Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act, 1996.

Not all occupational diseases are compensable. In the third schedule of Factories Act there is a list of 29 diseases which are compensable under the Indian Factories Act.

Overall responsibility for implementation of safe working environment at the workplace in India rests with the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India. At the States and Union Territories level these activities are coordinated and implemented through State Labour Departments through Factories Inspectors, Certifying Surgeons and Medical Inspectors.

The Central Pollution Control Board has been playing a key role in controlling pollution by generating relevant data, providing scientific information, rendering technical inputs for formation of national policies and programmes, training and development of manpower, through activities for promoting awareness at different levels of the Government and Public at large. The specific of The State Pollution Control Boards functions include;
(a) formulation of preventive measures;
(b) laying down standards;
(c) technology development which is environment friendly;
(d) control of pollution through inspection of industrial units;
(e) regulation of location of industries;
(f) disposal of hazardous wastes; and
(g) collection and dissemination of information on the prevention and control of pollution.